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Cyclopedia
Endless three-dimensional picture scrolls shuttling through thousands of years
Introduction of Yungang Grottoes
As one of the three leading grottoes in China, Yungang Grottoes are located in the south of Wuzhoum mountain north bank of Ten-Mile River. It is about sixteen kilometers to the west of Datong, Shanxi Province. All the Caves, extending about one kilometer from east to west, were hollowed out of the mountain. The 254 Caves are made up of three groups of east, middle and west with 45 major grottos and 209 secondary caves.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF
YUNGANG GROTTOES
This is a roll of static film, which is the epitome of history and the evidence of history
Datong, known as Pingcheng in ancient times, belongs to Yanmen county. In the seventh year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (200BC), Liu Bang was famous for the fact that he attacked Xiongnu in the north and was trapped in Baishan Mountain in Pingcheng (now northeast of Datong). Pingcheng is located between the Great Wall inside and outside. Wuzhou fortress is the main traffic road between Han nationality and Xiongnu, Xianbei and other ethnic minorities. It "connects Shanggu in the East, reaches Heheng in the south, borders the Yellow River in the west, and controls the desert in the north" according to the back of the world (Fangyu memorabilia of reading history, Vol. 44, Shanxi Datong mansion), which is actually a strategic area and the north gate of Central Plains. After tuobayi moved its capital to Pingcheng, it became the base of the Tuoba tribe of Xianbei and an international metropolis at the eastern end of the Eurasian Silk Road at that time.
Datong, known as Pingcheng in ancient times, belongs to Yanmen county. In the seventh year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (200BC), Liu Bang was famous for the fact that he attacked Xiongnu in the north and was trapped in Baishan Mountain in Pingcheng (now northeast of Datong). Pingcheng is located between the Great Wall inside and outside. Wuzhou fortress is the main traffic road between Han nationality and Xiongnu, Xianbei and other ethnic minorities. It "connects Shanggu in the East, reaches Heheng in the south, borders the Yellow River in the west, and controls the desert in the north" according to the back of the world (Fangyu memorabilia of reading history, Vol. 44, Shanxi Datong mansion), which is actually a strategic area and the north gate of Central Plains. After tuobayi moved its capital to Pingcheng, it became the base of the Tuoba tribe of Xianbei and an international metropolis at the eastern end of the Eurasian Silk Road at that time.
cave 20
The wall and top of the cave collapsed in the early years. In Liao Dynasty, wooden eaves were built, and then destroyed by the fire of the army, forming the open-air statue. The main Buddha is 13.7m high, high meat bun, wide forehead is abundant, with long eyes and high nose, eight character moustache, Zen printing by hand, thick right cassock and raised garment pattern, with the remains of Gandhara statue. The Buddha is strong and vigorous, and the powerful expression of the nomadic people is the representative and symbol of the carving art of Yungang Grottoes, and an unprecedented masterpiece of Chinese early Buddhist sculpture art. On both sides of the Buddha, a Buddha and a Bodhisattva are threatened. The west is like a treasure destroyed.
cave 19
The main Buddha, 16.8 meters high, is the second largest Buddha in Yungang Grottoes. The earrings of the Buddha are shoulder to shoulder, and the jaw is broken. Raise your right hand with a small post under your elbow. The pattern is simple, light and close to the body. The first Buddhist story image in Yungang is the origin of the south wall Luo and Luo. Outside the cave, there is an ear hole in the East and the west, and inside there is a Buddha statue. This kind of layout design for the placement of the third generation Buddhas in the grottoes has both changes and solemnity, which is a new initiative in the shape of the Grottoes in the Northern Dynasties.
cave 18
Grottoes 18, 19 and 20 are in a group. Cave 19 is the central grotto, which was first excavated. Cave 18 is a well-designed and well-designed cave. The main Buddha statue on the north wall is 15.5 meters high, with a high bun, round cheeks, a high nose, thick and plain. It is dressed in a thousand Buddha cassock. On both sides of the cave, there are statues of escorting Buddha, escorting Bodhisattva and ten disciples. Left flank Buddha head canopy, round face, great body. Left flank Bodhisattva wearing a corolla, beautiful and elegant. The sculptures of the five disciples in the upper end are all of the characteristics of the people of the western regions. They are either holding a bottle and standing still, or picking flowers and smiling, or listening with closed eyes, or if they have some understanding, or if they like to be born from their heart, they are marvelous.
cave 17
The main figure is the Maitreya in Bodhisattva dress, 15.6m high, with a treasure crown on its head, snake ornaments and short wreaths on his chest, a long arm, an armpit, a waist and a long skirt with a sheepskin under, Leo, with a strong exotic tone. The Buddha face on the west wall is round and simple and magnificent. East wall sitting Buddha shoulders are very close, the dress line is smooth, and the knife technique is skillful. The four walls of the cave are mainly carved with Thousand Buddhas. The statues are simple and straight, pure and simple, reflecting the artistic characteristics of the early image creation in Yungang. The Western Wall Buddha is backlight and provides for the sky. The one leg is kneeling and holding lotus in both hands. The look is quiet and the shape is beautiful. The statue niche of Taihe in the east wall of Ming window in the 13th year (487) is an important criterion for the stage and the generation of Yungang Grottoes.
cave 16
Cave 16-20 is the first group of caves excavated in Yungang. It is called "tanyao five caves" because it was built by a famous monk tanyao. The cave system is the same, the plane is horseshoe shape, dome, cave statues are mainly three Buddha, the main statue carved Qiwei, crown in I, respectively, symbolizing the five emperors of the Northern Wei Dynasty.
Caves 16 and 17 are a group. The main statue of cave 16 is Buddha, 13.5 meters high, with wavy hair and elegant appearance. The Buddha, wearing a broad ribbon cassock and a drooping band on his chest, is a kind of dress system adopted in the Northern Wei Dynasty when it was sinicized.
cave 15
Square single Cave Room, mainly to show the theme of thousand Buddha, formerly known as "Thousand Buddha cave". There are more than ten thousand statues in the cave, so it is also called "ten thousand Buddha cave". These ten Buddhas, which symbolize the separation of Sakyamuni, are arranged in an orderly way with rigorous composition. On both sides of the Jibo mountain stove, the west wall shaped curtain niche is carved with fish, birds and algae, showing the natural scenery of gulls gathering and fish leaping in the abyss. The lower part of the niche is full of flying music, and the heavenly clothes are flexible and ethereal. The flying posture is in harmony with the fluctuating water plants above.
cave 14
The caves are divided into front and back chambers. After water seepage and erosion, the statues are seriously weathered and denuded. The south wall and part of the cave top have collapsed, and only the East thousand Buddha pillar remains. The two pillars at the entrance of the cave were still restored in 1994. In the square niche at the lower level of the west wall, there are left VIMA, right Manjusri and a Bodhisattva standing in the middle, holding a bowl in his right hand and a lotus in his left hand, which shows the story content of Vimalakirti Sutra.
cave 13
At the top of the vault, the main statue is Maitreya Maitreya, 13 meters high, with a crown on his head, a bell collar and a necklace on his neck, a snake on his chest and beads on his head. Under the elbow of the right arm, a man of strength and four arms strive to lift, as if pulling the mountain. The statue was painted in clay by later generations, and only two feet of lotus were found in the original carving. The eastern niches, the halls, the flying pavilions, the tassel curtains, and the Dragon leaping all show the Han style. In the large room shaped niche between the south wall window and the cave door, the seven standing Buddha statues are elegant.
cave 12
It is commonly known as "music cave". In the front and back chamber caves, eaves are chiseled above the outer wall of the front chamber, and columns are arranged at the entrance of the cave. On the top of the north wall of the front room, there are 14 pieces of tiangongjiyue, which are used to play such musical instruments as Chuzhi, Qigu, panxiao, pipa, HengDi, Qinqin, Wuxian, Qiong, konghou, Yaogu, yizui, Faluo, etc. A group of dancers on the lintel, with coherent movements and unrestrained spirit, is an artistic representation of human dance. The grotto top reverse hair shape jiletian, with strong physique, has the character characteristics of northern minorities. The shape of the musical instrument carving, the way of playing and the combination form of the band in the cave reflect the style and social music system of the Royal band in the Northern Wei Dynasty, which is a valuable material for the study of ancient Chinese music history.
cave 11
Caves 11, 12 and 13 form a group. The central tower in cave 11 has two floors, the upper and the lower. The style is simple and simple. In the lower level, the Buddha stands on all sides, while in the front, there are two flanks on both sides to serve the Bodhisattvas. They have a thin neck and waist, and have a gentle look. They were chiseled for the Liao Dynasty. There are seven Buddhas in the large niche in the west wall, with wavy hair style, plump face, tall body and elegant Chinese clothes. The inscription on the statue of the seventh year of Taihe (483) in the upper layer of the east wall, with 337 characters in total, is the earliest existing inscription with the most characters in Yungang Grottoes. The style of the calligraphy is simple and elegant, and it is a masterpiece of Wei stele calligraphy in Pingcheng. There are many niches on the four walls in the grottoes, and there is no unified regulation. It is about the Northern Wei Dynasty's folk fund-raising.
cave 10
Between the window and the arch on the north wall of the front room, Xumi mountain is full of mountains, with two dragons intertwined on the hillside. There are dense trees and racing animals in the mountains. On the outside, Asura sits cross legged, multi headed and multi armed, holding the sun and moon in his hands. The East and west walls are carved with three room type niches, in which the Buddha faces are amiable and the Bodhisattva looks calm. Under Yan Fu's tree, he sat half at the beginning, thinking about the Bodhisattva, supporting himself with one hand, and sinking into the four truths. On the East and west sides of the cave gate, the vajras wear bird crowns and hold Vajra pestles with a kind expression. The image of the master of the back room is Maitreya Bodhisattva, and the East and the west walls are each flanked to serve the Bodhisattva. The south wall is a niche for the story of Sakyamuni's surrender to the outside world.
cave 9
Caves 9-13, commonly known as "Wuhua cave", are extremely gorgeous due to the application of clay painting in later generations. Because it was built in the era of national transformation and cultural renewal in the Northern Wei Dynasty, and the Han style became strong, it had distinct characteristics of sinicization and nationalization.
The ninth and tenth grottoes are a group of double Grottoes with front and back chambers and Han style palace layout. The gate of the cave is lined with three pillars. A Thousand Buddhas are carved on the pillar, bearing the lion and the elephant as its heritage. The door of cave 9 is a traditional Chinese veranda style building, with symmetrical niches on both sides, layered carving and a combination of Chinese and Western styles, which has a strong sense of decoration. The four walls of the cave are layered with niches, and the themes of the statues are mostly from the fahua Sutra. The top of the cave is grid shaped, with lotus and flying Apsaras carved in it. Bayuecha is strong and strong, holding Wanjun with one hand. The main statue on the north wall of the back room is carved with Sakyamuni, and the East and west walls are each flanked by Bodhisattvas.
cave 8
On the west side of the cave gate, a peacock riding jiumolaotian is carved. He has five heads and six arms. He looks like a boy. He is smiling. He holds the sun and moon in his hand, or holds a bow and arrow. He holds a turtledove in his left hand. It has rich exotic customs. On the east side of the mountain, the head of Mount Luotian is three headed and eight armed. He has a round face. He wears a pointed hat on both sides of his head. His main arm is akimbo with one hand, and the other is holding a grain ear. The rest of his arms are supporting the sun and moon, bows and arrows, or carrying Ruyi. The shape of the multi armed gods originated from ancient India and was originally a Brahmanic God. This group of statues is unique to Yungang Grottoes, reflecting the characteristics of early Buddhism.
cave 7
Caves 7 and 8 are the earliest twin caves in Yungang. There are front and back chambers in the cave, and the plane of the main chamber is a transverse rectangle. The statues in the grottoes are full of Hu style and Han rhyme, and the eastern and Western cultures have had the most splendid impact and blend here. The two walls of the window in cave 7 are the images of meditation under the bhikkhu tree. In the middle of the large niche on the upper part of the north wall is Maitreya, the Buddha sitting on both sides, and the two Buddhas of Sakyamuni and Duobao sitting side by side. In the rectangular curtain niche on the south wall, there are six high hair bun to support the half of the sky. It is quiet and beautiful, graceful and graceful. It is known as the "six beauties of Yungang". It is a masterpiece of western region statues with oriental elements. The top of the cave imitates the flat caisson in the wooden structure, and 24 pairs of flying sky dance around the blooming lotus.
Cave 6 (Saka Buddha cave)
The cave is also called Zhiti grottoes and pagoda temples, which is also named as the central column grottoes. It is also known as "the first Grand View of Yungang", and is a miracle in the history of world sculpture art. The square tower in the center of the cave is divided into the upper and lower layers, with a height of 15 meters. On each side of the upper layer, a Buddha, two Bodhisattva, and four corners carved elephant carrying nine level tower tower; the lower layer is surrounded by niches to sit Buddha. There are eleven Buddhas on the top of the four walls of the cave, with the Chinese cover hanging and magnificent. The cave is shaped in the shape of a grid, and there are many gods with multiple arms and many arms riding peacock, lion, tiger, long tail bird and other animals. There are more than 30 Buddhist stories reflecting Sakya's life in the cave, which mainly show a series of landmark scenes of Buddha master from birth, growth, marriage, to family and Dharma. These stories are carved with reasonable structure and simple techniques, which are precious for the new creation of Gandhara art.
Cave 5 (Buddha cave)
471-494
The fifth and sixth grottoes are a group of double grottoes. The four storey wooden pavilions in front of the grottoes were built by Tong Yangliang, governor of Xuanda in 1651. They are magnificent because of the rock structure. That is, the "Yungang Moyun" in the eight scenes of Yunzhong in the Ming Dynasty. On the top of the two walls of the cave gate, there are carved a holy tree with luxuriant branches and leaves. The two Buddhas sit opposite each other under the tree, with a serene look. On the lower level, the vajras wear two winged crowns and armor, and are majestic. Sitting on the north wall of the cave, the Buddha is 17 meters high. It is the tallest Buddha statue in Yungang Grottoes. Later, it was painted with clay in the style of Tang Dynasty. There is a Buddha standing on the east wall and the west wall, with a straight nose and curved eyebrows, a little smile and graceful elegance. There is a liturgical passage in the back wall.
Cave 4
494-525
Tower temple cave, one door and two windows. The cave was not completed as planned. The central tower is surrounded by statues of one Buddha and two Bodhisattvas. The four walls of the cave are seriously weathered. There is an inscription on the south wall in Zhengguang period (520-525), "the statue of the late husband serving the middle", which is the latest Northern Wei Dynasty statue in Yungang Grottoes.
Cave 3 (Lingyan Temple cave)
471-494
The largest cave in Yungang, originally designed as a large Pagoda Temple cave, was not completed by the Northern Wei Dynasty. There was a large wooden pavilion built on the cliff outside the cave. Now there is only a row of 12 beam holes on the top, which shows that the Buddha Pavilion was a huge system with a wide face and eleven bays. There is a three-level square tower at each end of the upper platform. Two open windows are cut between the two towers. Between the two open windows is a hall shaped Cave Room. The main statue is carved with Maitreya. In the north wall of the cave, there are three statues of Amitabha, Guanyin and dashizhi Bodhisattva, namely "three saints of the west". Lord Amitabha is 10 meters high, reclining, with a round, plump face and a detached look. The Bodhisattvas on both sides wear precious crowns, which are exquisite and solemn. At present, there are four theories about the carving age in the Northern Wei Dynasty, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Liao Dynasty, which are mostly based on the artistic style of statues. The remains left in the grottoes are precious materials for understanding the excavation methods of ancient grottoes
Cave 2 (Hanquan cave)
471-494
On the top and west side of the window on the outer wall of the cave, there are inscriptions of "clear sound of mountains and rivers" and "deep clouds". The three-level square Pagoda in the cave is in the middle. The surface of the pagoda is carved with wood like building components such as tile tube, eaves rafter and bucket arch, and the upper four corners are carved with octagonal columns. The four walls of the cave are arranged in layers and sections. The top layer is carved with a series of niches for the music of the heavenly palace. The bottom layer is the zigzag draped curtain belt, the Zen sitting Buddha belt, the large niches, and the long scroll relief story. The bottom layer is the statue of the donor. The main statue on the north wall is Sakyamuni sitting Buddha, which is seriously weathered. In the lower part of the east wall, the story of the Buddha's biography of the crown prince "arrow shooting iron drum" is embossed. There is a spring gushing from the underground of the cave, formerly known as "Hanquan cave".
Cave 1 (shigu cave)
471-494
The first and second caves are a group of twin caves with pagodas and temples. There are one single-layer square pagodas on each side of the cave. On the east side of the window on the outer wall of the first cave, Zhu Tinghan's poem about visiting Yungang Stone Buddha Temple in Qing Dynasty is inscribed. The plan of the cave is rectangular, with a flat top, two floors above and below the central square tower, and the eaves of the tower with a wooden roof. At the top of the tower, the dragon is circling and Xumi mountain is winding. The main image of the north wall is Maitreya Bodhisattva. The lower layer of the east wall is embossed with the story of "Zhuozi Bensheng". According to textual research, cave 1 and cave 2 were built as the national protection temple before the Liao Dynasty, one of the ten temples in Yungang. Ming and Qing Dynasties, called "shiguhanquan", is one of the eight scenic spots in the cloud.
Scenic spot
Snail apartment
Turn waste into treasure
Ancient stone Buddha Temple
Lotus Avenue
The statue of tanmei of bhiksuni
Relief wall for worshiping Buddha
LIFO Avenue
Tanyao square
Snail apartment
Snail apartment is located in Dongshan of Yungang Grottoes scenic area. It is a part of Dongshan Bodhi art zone. It is a green and environmental protection sketching building made of waste cemen...
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Turn waste into treasure
In 2008, Yungang Grottoes carried out the construction of a large scenic area, and comprehensively managed the surrounding environment of Yungang Grottoes. The government relocated one town and...
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Ancient stone Buddha Temple
The ancient stone Buddha Temple is the Yungang temple in front of the existing caves 5 and 6. There are Mountain Gate, Tianwang hall, wing room, stone lion, bell and Drum Tower. Shanmen (Qing Dy...
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Lotus Avenue
Buddhism, ginkgo, pure water and lotus wash ancient and modern. Lotus Avenue is located in front of cave 20 of Yungang Grottoes. The straight and quiet Avenue connects with Jieyin Buddha Hall. O...
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The statue of tanmei of bhiksuni
Located in front of the Mountain Gate of cave 1 of Yungang Grottoes, the stone inscription "the statue of tanmei of bhiksuni" was inscribed in 503 ad (the fourth year of Jingming Dynas...
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Relief wall for worshiping Buddha
Facing the west through the avenue of Buddha's light, there are two opposite fan-shaped relief walls in front of the world. This group of relief walls on the opposite side of the front are gener...
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LIFO Avenue
The so-called "road of rites and Buddhas" is "booze, puwu, Zhou, Cihang, fa'an". Walking westward, thirteen pairs of thousand Buddha columns are listed on both sides of the L...
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Tanyao square
Tanyao square is located at the entrance of Yungang Grottoes scenic area, covering an area of more than 6000 square meters. It is built to commemorate the founder of Yungang Grottoes, eminent mo...
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Travel around
Surrounding scenic spots
Stay at home and feel the charm of Yungang
Surrounding scenic spots
Wulongxia
Hongcibao
Hongshiya taixuanmen
Wulongxia
Hongcibao
Hongshiya taixuanmen
Jueshan Temple
Ciyun Temple
Water god Hall
Wutai Mountain
Yingxian Wood Tower
Mount Heng
Leisure shopping
Stay at home and feel the charm of Yungang
Leisure shopping
Mount Heng
Catering and accommodation
Stay at home and feel the charm of Yungang
Catering and accommodation
Weidu International Hotel
Yonghe Food City
Yonghe Zhaozhai private Restaurant
Yonghe Yungang store
Yonghe Restaurant
Yonghe fast food Zhenhua Street
CELEBRITIES AND YUNGANG
In the more than 1500 years history of Yungang Grottoes, many literati have left their insights in Yungang. Nowadays, the stories of these celebrities and Yungang, as the witness of the multi-ethnic cultural integration in China, reflect our memor
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